All analog converters are not ideal. There are always some manufacturing defects and non-ideal material properties which lead to the introduction of some errors in the system. Well, these errors can be critical when the measurement needs to meet some precision criteria. We had a comprehensive and a through study of quantization error up till now. Let us delve into other errors that may have a pernicious influence on an ADCs reading. Continue reading ADC Errors
In earlier posts, we had a glimpse of the term quantization error. This error is introduced during the quantization process in the due course of conversion. The process of quantizing is equivalent to rounding up or truncation of a number. Incase of analog converters, it is the rounding up/truncation of the analog signal to a digital value the ADC can output (or encode). This process of approximation introduces an error called the quantization error into the readings. It other words the errored output is the result of infestation (superimposition) of quantization noise on the input signal. Continue reading Quantization Error and SNR
Understanding bits and resolution is key to working with analog converters. The resolution of an analog converter helps us to make meaningful interpretations of a sensed signals. It seems that the resolution just gives us a conversion ratio so that the true value of the signal can be expounded, but there is more to it, than what meets the eye. Continue reading Bits and Resolution
ADCs ( Analog to Digital Converts ) find their application almost everywhere, ranging from our cell phone to rocket science. The world that we perceive is basically analog in nature, and when we need to capture these worldly changes and process them with our digital world, ADCs come in handy. Almost all sensors make use of ADCs, to bridge the gap between the digital and analog world. The sensors in our mobile phone like the accelerometer, gyro sensor, magnetometer, ambient light sensor etc have ADC in them. These sensors use electro-mechanical systems, or
The sensors in our mobile phone like the accelerometer, gyro sensor, magnetometer, ambient light sensor etc have ADC in them. These sensors use electromechanical systems, or electrochemical systems to convert mechanical or chemical changes into an equivalent electrical signal in the form of voltage. The ADC senses the voltage level and gives a binary output. Performing reverse calculations on this digital value gives us the actual value of the analog signal. Continue reading Introduction to ADC
Embedded systems exist in our cars, refrigerators, washing machines, telephones, televisions, mixer etc. practically everywhere. Embedded C is the most popular language used to program the processor and controllers used in these systems. So what is embedded C and how is it different from actual C? Continue reading C vs Embedded C
We need to get our hands on the component before we start any embedded or robotics project. So, where can you get all the embedded and robotic components online? Continue reading List of online stores for Robotics and Embedded systems in India
If we are planning to start working with microcontrollers (MCUs) /microprocessors (MPUs), we would want to start with something which is simple and required minimum hardware to assemble. In that case, development boards are the things we should be looking for. So let’s look at what development boards are. Continue reading Different Development Boards
The 8 bit MCU technology has been around for about half a century. These devices provide fast and easy deployment for small embedded projects. On the other hand, we have a more recent 32 Bit MCU technology, which has gained a lot of popularity. These devices offer almost everything, ranging from high processing power to rich peripherals, along with easy and fast development tools.
So which microcontroller to select? 8 bit or 32 bit?
According to the SI system, a kilo =1000 of any quantity or that’s what we have learnt in school. Honouring this fact, 1 kilobyte = 1000 bytes. But our digital systems work on a binary scale. So according to it 1 kilobyte= 210 = 1024 bytes.
So what exactly is a kilobyte? Is it 1000 bytes? Or is it 1024 bytes?
The working of a microcontroller is sequential. It performs one step after another. Below, I have mentioned the stepwise process and have tried to keep the language lucid. The image below shows the 8051 architecture so that you can pictorially relate the different process. Continue reading How a microcontroller works?